International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation</strong> publishing peer-reviewed scholarly reviews, themed issues and research articles within the entire scope of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The journal particularly aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts related to current pharmaceutical drug delivery and related fields and submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of pharmaceutical drug delivery are welcomed. The journal publishes the following categories of manuscripts: research papers presenting original research, reviews, short communications, letter to the editor, commentaries, etc. including critical review articles providing a comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in pharmaceutical drug delivery.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Subjects covered in the journal</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal aims to cater for the latest outstanding developments in the field of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology covering the following topics (non-limiting):</p> <ul style="text-align: justify;"> <li class="show">Pharmaceutics</li> <li class="show">Nanotechnology</li> <li class="show">Current Novel Drug Delivery Systems</li> <li class="show">Quality control of Pharmaceuticals</li> <li class="show">Quality Assurance</li> <li class="show">National and International Regulatory Affairs</li> <li class="show">Validation Techniques</li> <li class="show">Industrial Pharmacy</li> <li class="show">Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition</li> <li class="show">Pharmacokinetics</li> <li class="show">Drug Development</li> <li class="show">Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Rights.</li> </ul> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Other Allied Pharmacy Subjects</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Pharmacognosy &amp; Ethnopharmacology</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Pharm Chemistry &amp; Medicinal Chemistry&nbsp;</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Pharmacology&nbsp;</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Pharmacy Practice</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Others</li> </ul> EManuscript en-US International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 2230-973X A Review on Different Solubility Enhancement Techniques of Ticagrelor <p style="text-align: justify;">Ticagrelor is a BCS class IV drug that inhibits platelet action by reversibly binding to the P2Y12 receptor. One of the major challenges faced by the class IV (low solubility, low permeability) drug is the lower dissolution rate leading to low bioavailability. The bioavailability of the marketed formulation of ticagrelor is approximately 36%. Researchers have come up with various techniques to improve the BCS class II and IV drug formulations as an integral part of the development of the pharmaceutical sciences. An increase in solubility can be achieved by various methods such as Salt formation, Complexation, Micronization, Solid Dispersion, altering the pH, Co-solvency, co-crystals, polymeric micelles, etc. A highly efficacious technique is converting a crystalline drug to its amorphous form. An extensive literature search was conducted using various databases like science direct, Taylor and Francis, Springer to extract relevant articles. Keywords like “Ticagrelor”, “low permeability”, “P2Y12 receptor inhibitor” were used for the literature search. Relevant articles were screened and referred for further study. This article discusses the techniques employed to increase the solubility of ticagrelor, thus highlighting the research conducted and reported. The increase in bioavailability of ticagrelor could be seen when formulated as nanoparticles, co-crystals, ticagrelor loaded self-micro emulsifying and nano emulsifying drug delivery system, solid dispersion, etc. the conversion of the crystalline drug into amorphous drug is a highly recommended approach to increase the solubility of ticagrelor which can be seen in cases of co-crystals and solid dispersion formulation.</p> Abhishek Srivastava Mohammad Ahmad Khan Simrata Bedi Uma Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 1 6 10.5530/223097131574 Herbal Bioenhancers with Nanocarriers: A Promising Approach for Oral Peptide Delivery <p style="text-align: justify;">The oral delivery of protein and peptide drugs faces immense challenges due to the harsh gastrointestinal (GI) environment, large molecular size, and low stability. Even though different approaches are employed to deliver peptide drugs efficiently, they have limited success. Recently, the use of nanoparticles as carriers for peptides as a means of surmounting the gastrointestinal barrier and as an effective alternative to parenteral administration has gained much attention. It is often necessary to supplement this mode of delivery by using strategies such as permeation enhancers. Bio-enhancers play a significant role in reducing the dose, drug resistance, toxicity, and treatment expenses. The potential of herbal bio-enhancers as a safe and effective substitute to non-herbal permeation enhancers in improving oral absorption of peptides from nanoparticulate systems has been explored recently. Piperine is counted first in the list of bio-enhancers and can improve the bioavailability of peptides and other drugs. Other molecules like naringin, glycyrrhizin, quercetin have great significance either alone or in combination in improving the oral bioavailability of drug molecules. Bioenhancers are beneficial for drugs with poor lipid solubility and large molecular size, causing poor absorption and low bioavailability. Herbal bioenhancers can decrease the dose, drug resistance, toxicity, adverse effects, and overall treatment cost as they are inert, easily procured and economical. This review article focuses on the significance of nanoparticles in the oral delivery of peptide drugs and the vital role played by herbal bioenhancers in their absorption from the GI tract.</p> Indu Raghunath Marina Koland Anoop Narayanan Vadakkepushpakath Lalit Kumar Sarathchandran Chandra Shekhar Shenoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 7 13 10.5530/223097131736 Clozapine: A Scientific Analysis of Global Publications during 1970-2021 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Aim: </strong>This study evaluates the research output on Clozapine included in Scopus database during 1970-2021. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The quantitative and qualitative analysis of publications on “Clozapine” covered in Scopus database during 1970-2021 was undertaken. The results obtained were further analysed using additional features in Scopus database. <strong>Results:</strong> 7399 publications on “Clozapine” were obtained from Scopus international database and these publications received 189068 citations, averaging 25.55 citations per paper (CPP). There was initial rise in the number of publications per year from 1988 to 1995, after that the number of publications has remained relatively stable. Authors from USA, U.K. and Germany contributed to the largest number of publications (2136, 709 and 457 publications respectively), and publications with authors from USA, Canada and Germany registered the highest CPP and relative citation index (RCI). The authors from King’s College London, U.K, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, USA and University of Toronto, Canada published the highest number of publications. The organization that registered the highest CPP and RCI was Sandoz International GmbH, Switzerland, Long Island Jewish Medical Centre, USA and Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, USA. The authors who published the highest number of publications were H.Y. Meltzer (USA), J.A. Lieberman (USA) and A. Weizman (Israel). The authors who registered the highest CPP and RCI were R.W. Kerwin (U.K.) and J.P. Lindermayer. The journals that published the highest number of publications were Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (351 papers),<em> Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (282 papers), and American Journal of Psychiatry (255 papers). The most impactful publications were published in Archives of General Psychiatry, Schizophrenia Bulletin, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, and American Journal of Psychiatry.</em><strong> Conclusion:</strong> This study suggests that the numbers of publications on clozapine have remained stable over the years and maximum research has emerged from the developed countries.</p> Sandeep Grover B.M. Gupta K.K. Mueen Ahmed Yogindra Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 14 21 10.5530/223097130001 Cardioprotective and Hepatoprotective Effects of Ixora pavetta and Tecoma capensis Leaf Extracts <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Ixora pavetta </em>and <em>Tecoma capensis</em> are two less explored and neglected plants species in medicinal prospective. The flowers bark and root of I. pavetta used as a remedy for cough, anaemia, women urinary problems. The bark powder of <em>Tecoma capensis</em> useful in treating fever, pneumonia, stomach problems and improve blood clotting. The role of leaves from these plants in medical practices is not yet clearly determined. The present work aimed to examine the potentiality of their leaf extracts in treating cardiovascular and chronic liver diseases. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Solvent extraction method is used to extract the bioactive components. The leaf extracts were tested for the existence of cardiac glycosides. The cardioprotective activity and hepatoprotective activity were done using isoproterenol method and MTT assay respectively.<strong> Results: </strong>The leaf extracts of both plants showed the presence of cardiac glycosides and the leaf extracts of T. capensis recorded a high yield of cardiac glycosides. Leaf methanolic extract (200 mg/kg) of T. capensis exhibited significant depletion in total cholesterol 108.11 mg/dL, tryglcerides 81.48 mg/dL and LDL cholesterol 93.15 mg/ dL in Wistar rats. The<em> I. pavetta </em>leaf methanolic extracts recorded moderate protective activity by increasing the concentrations against H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> pre-stimulated HepG2 cells. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The extracts of both plants exhibited good cardioprotective activity and hepatoprotective activity. The leaf methanolic extracts of T. capensis reported more cardioprotective activity whereas the leaf methanolic extracts of<em> I. pavetta</em> showed significant hepatoprotective potentiality</p> Dara Suneeta YRKV Tirupathi Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 22 27 10.5530/223097131566 Optimization of Green Synthesized Black Tea Nanoparticles using Central Composite Design <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives:</strong> Traditional method of optimization is lengthy and time consuming while response surface methodology evaluates the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on one or more response variables with fewer experiments. The aim of present study is optimization of green synthesized black tea nanoparticles using central composite design. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 5, 15, and 25% black tea concentrations were reacted with 5, 10, and 15 mM Silver nitrate (AgNO3). An optimization study was carried out to optimize the levels of the independent factors like concentration of extract, solution of Silver nitrate, stirring speed, and stirring time. 30 numbers of experiments were performed and evaluated for responses like particle size and % yield. Characterization of silver nanoparticle was done by UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta sizer, XRD, FTIR, FESEM, etc. <strong>Results:</strong> Nanoparticles formation was revealed by color transformation from light yellow to brown. Prepared particles were monodisperse with Z-Average: 137.8 nm, polydispersity index 0.278, and Zeta potentials 22.7 mV. Electrophoretic Mobility Mean was 0.000176 cm 22/Vs, indicating the stability of silver nanoparticle suspension. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Optimized parameters offered by Central Composite Design were 10mM AgNO3, 10% extract of black 150 min, and 700 rpm. 3D plots revealed that the metal salt concentrations and stirring rate showed a direct relationship whereas extract concentration and stirring time showed indirect relationship with particle size. % yield was highest with mid level of solution of metal salt (A) and concentration of extract (B) Stirring time (C) and stirring speed had no impact on % yield.</p> Sarika Sarika Nikam Shilpa Chaudhari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 28 36 10.5530/223097131651 Prospective Study on Identification of Risk Factors, Assessment of Respiratory Distress in Pediatrics <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction: </strong>Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is defined as any upper or lower respiratory tract infectious disease. Globally, respiratory infections are the leading cause of infant and child mortality and a substantial burden of morbidity. Proper use of antibiotics is crucial and should be incorporated into the pharmaceutical care plan.<strong> Aim:</strong> The present study aimed to identify risk factors, and assess respiratory distress in pediatrics by using the ReSVinet scale. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A prospective observational study was conducted for the age of &lt; 2 years over 6 months with a sample size of 250 in the pediatrics department. <strong>Results:</strong> The Majority of the patients were from the age group of 0-1 year (81.6%). Female patients are more (56%). Out of 250 cases, most of the patients are from rural (69.2%). Most of the patients are found to be undernourished (72.4%). Cold, cough (78%), and breathing difficulty (19.6%) are more commonly occurring symptoms in patients with pulmonary infections. Respiratory distress (25.6%), and pneumonia (20.8%) are found to be more prominent diseases in pediatrics. Every preterm patient is affected with respiratory distress syndrome (74.8%). In our study uppermiddle and lower-middle socioeconomic classes were affected by RTI. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concludes that they are multiple aetiological factors in this group, which include Age, Gender, Residence, Gestation, and Nutrition can cause ARI. The ReSVinet Scale was found to have substantial reliability.</p> Machavarapu Neelima Yekkala Prathyusha Mamindla Archana Thirunagiri Praveenkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 37 42 10.5530/223097131669 Age-related Variation in TSH Levels in Patients with Down’s Syndrome -A Ten Year Longitudinal Study <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> A well-established finding is that thyroid disease is seen more commonly in individuals suffering from Down’s Syndrome than in people without the condition. Patients are at risk from childhood to adulthood. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels are essential for diagnosing and managing hypothyroidism. Thyroid dysfunction increases with age in individuals diagnosed with Down’s Syndrome, according to a study undertaken by Karlsson B et al. in 1998. Our study aims at investigating the TSH level variations over a 10-year period, in individuals affected by Down’s Syndrome, belonging to different age groups. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Present study was conducted to include 40 individuals between the ages of 9 years to 27 years who were assessed at the ‘Down Syndrome Care Association, Nashik, India’. Between 2009 and 2019, annual testing of thyroid function status was conducted and TSH levels in collected samples were analyzed. Five Different age groups, (9 - 15 years, 16 - 22 years, 23 - 29 years and 30 - 36 years) were identified, and data was segregated. Statistical analysis was performed over collected data and results were drawn. <strong>Results: </strong>The TSH levels in 9-15 years ranged between 5.21 mU/L - 7.13 mU/L, in 16-22 years, it was 5.66 mU/L - 6.56 mU/L, in 23-29 years, it was 4.33 mU/L - 7.37 mU/L and in 30-36 years it was 3.62 mU/L - 9.43 mU/L.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Variations are observed in the fluctuating TSH values in individuals with Down’s Syndrome belonging to different age groups. Periodic analysis of thyroid function is recommended highly as age increases since variations in TSH levels are seen to have a direct relation to it</p> Mandar Ambike Nabilah Kazi Arun Prasad Dnyandeo Chopade Suresh Kondaveeti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 43 47 10.5530/223097131714 Adverse Drug Reactions Monitoring in New Patients Admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are amongst the commonly occurring event in the intensive care unit where patients are mostly on the polypharmacy. They affect the quality of life of patients and increase the burden on the health care system. <strong>Aim and Objectives: </strong>The study aimed to estimate the incidence of ADRs and to assess the causality and seriousness of such ADRs by using the Naranjo probability scale. A prospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted on patients admitted to the cardiac care unit over a period of 10 months. ADRs profile was noted by spontaneous and intensive monitoring. For analysis, descriptive statistics with 95% CI were used. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 77 ADRs were reported from the 173 patients, out of which 31 patients suffered from ADRs, with an incidence of 17.9%. The gastrointestinal system was the most common affected system followed by the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. When analyzed on the Naranjo ADR probability scale, the majority of the ADRs (67.5%) were rated as probable followed by possible (32.4%). It was observed that the number of drugs used as well as the duration of stay in the hospital, in patients with ADRs, was significantly higher than those who did not have any adverse effect. The pattern and spectrum of ADRs need to be studied further so that their occurrence can be prevented. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study can be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable ADRs and can be an effort to make the use of drugs more rational and safe</p> Paviterjeet Singh Shweta Singla Rajiv Mahajan Rakendra Singh Manish Kumar Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 48 52 10.5530/223097131715 Protective Effect of Arjunakwatha and Arjunasheeta in Paracetamol-induced Kidney Injury in Rat Model <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic kidney disease is now a global burden with an increased grade of morbidity and mortality due to the unavailability of particular medicines except for high-cost treatments like dialysis or kidney transplantation. Tribal people use their own indigenous preparation of medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of kidney ailments. The present study was aimed at preparing Arjunakwaatha and Arjunasheeta, an indigenous preparation of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA) and its supplementation in the kidney injury rat model. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this study, rats were induced to kidney injury (KI) by intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol 15 mg/kg b.w. for 14 days and supplementation of Arjunakwaatha and Arjunasheeta with various doses continued the experimentation for 28 days. <strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), glutamine oxalic transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in plasma, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue, urinary protein, and KIM-1 were significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased in kidney injury rats when compared to normal control rats. Supplementation of Arjunakwaatha and Arjunasheeta with kidney injury rats significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased urea, creatinine, CRP, GOT, GPT, MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels as compared to kidney injury rats. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed new low molecular weight urinary protein bands in kidney injury rats. The protective effects of Arjunakwaatha and Arjunasheeta present no band at this molecular level in normal rats. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It has been concluded that Arjunakwaatha is the best indigenous preparation for kidney protection.</p> Supriya Bhowmick Deblina Giri Meghamala Mandal Shrabanti Pyne Pinku Pal Sanjay Das Dilip Kumar Nandi Koushik Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 53 61 10.5530/223097131728 Evaluation of DHFR Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Newly Synthesized Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Scaffold Coupled with Benzylidene and Ethylidene Amino Motifs <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives:</strong> Substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones at position-3 with phenyl ring, heterocycles and aliphatic moieties, were reported to impart antimicrobial activities. In light of this, we have attempted to prepare a novel series of 2-pheny-3-substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones fused with an azomethine (-CH=N-) connection to Benzylidene and ethylidene motifs. Each of these motifs underwent testing to determine whether it could inhibit<em> in-vitro</em> microbial DHFR and the subsequent antimicrobial action. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The synthesized 2-phenyl-3- substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were characterized by FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, <sup>13</sup>C-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental (C, H, N, O and X=halogen) analysis. Evaluated results of <em>in-vitro </em>microbial DHFR inhibition are compared with the reported drug trimethoprim. Agar disc diffusion method was used for<em> in-vitro </em>antimicrobial activity, performed against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria like <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis</em>, and <em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>respectively, and <em>fungi </em>like <em>Candida albicans,</em> and <em>Aspergillus niger.</em> <strong>Results:</strong> Docking analysis of ligands with DHFR (PDB=2W3M) has shown strong hydrophobic binding interaction and confirmed a perfect fit into the active domain of the target protein. Possible antimicrobial activity was induced from microbial DHFR inhibition. The results of the tests are compared with gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and clotrimazole. Compounds with potent antibacterial activity were QI-j, and QII-f (MIC=0.1-0.2μg/mL), and moderately active compounds were QIa-d, QIl-m, QIII-d, and QIIIe-f (MIC=0.5-2.0μg/mL). Compounds exhibited potent antifungal activity were QI-c, QII-b, and QIII-f (MIC=0.1-0.2μg/mL), moderately active compounds were QIc-e, QI-g, QIm-n, QII-d, QIII-b, and QIII-e (MIC=0.5-2.0μg/mL). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Particularly test compounds have produced DHFR inhibition in a range of 4-24μM as compared with trimethoprim (IC<sub>50</sub>=10 μM). Benzylidene and ethylidene moieties attached to the quinazolin-4(3H)-one had contributed to this activity. Present series of substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones provide a path for the design and development of newer antimicrobial agents in the treatment of deadly pathogenic infections.</p> Sunil Harer Manish Bhatia Priyanka Sonar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 62 73 10.5530/223097131749 Development, Optimization and Evaluation of Herbal Patch Formulation for Acne Treatment <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> More than 85% of young people around the world suffer from acne vulgaris, which is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory skin illness. The study’s objective was to develop a herbal patch formulation contained quercetin, curcuminoids, and berberine HCl for the treatment of acne that utilizing ethyl cellulose and HPMC K4M as polymers and propylene glycol as a plasticizer. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Drug excipient compatibility study was performed using FT-IR. Preliminary trial was done for screening of polymers and plasticizer concentrations. The combined influence of the two independent variables, namely the concentration of HPMC K4M and ethyl cellulose, on the dependent variables, tensile strength and cumulative % drug release at 24 hr, was examined using a 32 full factorial design. Patches were evaluated for physicochemical parameters. <strong>Results: </strong>Drug excipient compatibility study revealed that drug and excipients are compatible with each other. The optimized formulation (C0) showed tensile strength 2.56 kg/cm2, cumulative percentage drug release of quercetin, berberine HCl, and curcuminoids at 24 hr were 94.02%, 64.66%, and 94.21%, respectively. Tensile strength increased with an amount of HPMC K4M and Ethyl cellulose increases, the cumulative percentage of drug release decreased as HPMC K4M and ethyl cellulose concentrations were raised.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Optimized herbal patch formulation had shown good physico-chemical and mechanical properties. The research shows that the developed formulation has the potential to be a useful replacement for the present medications in the market.</p> Kinjal Patel Keyur Patel Maitreyi Zaveri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 74 81 10.5530/223097131792 Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives as Potential EGFR Inhibitors for Breast Cancer <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Breast cancer is the highest mortality-causing disease among cancers in women and it can be cured by early diagnosis as well as treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is the prime factor that helps in the growth and development of breast cancer. There are several EGFR inhibitors approved for breast cancer treatment, but all are shown to cause resistance and severe toxicity. The present research work is based on the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel derivatives against breast cancer cell lines. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Ten novel Quinazoline derivatives (4a-j) were synthesized and characterized by IR, PMR, and CMR spectroscopic methods. Cell proliferation and cytotoxic effects of synthesized derivatives were determined by using MTT assay and hemolytic assay.<strong> Results: </strong>The growth inhibition potential of synthesized derivatives was evaluated against normal as well as mutated breast cancer cell lines i.e., MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 using the MTT method. Nearly, five derivatives 4b, 4c, 4e, 4f, 4i for MCF-7 and 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4i for MDA-MB231 were assessed for IC<sub>50</sub> value. It was observed that these compounds of the series exhibited higher IC<sub>50</sub> values (8.72 to 15.70, 12.66 to 21.21μM/mL) as compared to erlotinib with IC<sub>50 </sub>values (16.80, 22.80), respectively. Moreover, the hemolytic estimation of the derivatives (4e, 2-Br) and (4i 4-CN) displayed less toxicity with HD<sub>50 </sub>values 69.87±8.9, 58.40±3.2, respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the current study provide safe, less-toxic, cost-effective, and potent novel quinazoline derivatives for breast cancer.</p> Deepak K. Dwivedi Ram Kishore Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 82 86 10.5530/223097131793 Polymeric Nanocarrier system Bearing Anticancer Agent for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Systematic Development and in vitro Characterization <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives:</strong> Doxorubicin-bearing polymeric (PLGA) nanoparticles (PNPs) were prepared for the treatment of prostate cancer. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>These PNPs were prepared using the solvent evaporation method and characterized using UV, NMR, Particle size Analyser, SEM, and TEM for the determination of shape, size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. Moreover,<em> in vitro </em>drug release, SRB assay, apoptosis, and haemolytic study were also performed to prove its potentiality for prostate cancer. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean particle size (MPS), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP) of PNPs were found to be 101.3 ± 1.23 nm, 0.240 ± 0.28 and -3.11 ± 1.96 mV, respectively. SEM and TEM revealed that the PNPs are spherical in shape and the sizes are approximately 100 nm. The entrapment efficiency, loading efficiency, and percentage drug release of doxorubicin from PNPs were found to be 69.38 ± 1.76%, 4.2 ± 0.64% and 77.56 ± 4.24%, respectively. In addition, cellular apoptosis against PC-3 cell lines was found to be ≥ 5.15 fold and haemolysis toxicity was reduced to ≤ 3.5 fold with PNPs as compared to free drug. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings demonstrated that PNPs have the potential to deliver the anticancer agent to tumor sites and could be an emerging strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer.</p> Pritish Kumar Panda Sanjay K Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 87 93 10.5530/223097131799 Simultaneous Analysis of Topotecan and Capsaicin by Micellar Liquid Chromatography <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study aimed to develop a micellar liquid chromatography-based simultaneous estimation method for the analysis of topotecan and capsaicin. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The Liquid chromatographic system consisted of the Shimadzu Prominence HPLC model (Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan) containing an LC-20AT isocratic pump, an autosampler SIL-20AC, and a diode array detector SPD-M20 A (190–800 nm) was used. The drugs were analyzed at a wavelength of 230 nm using sodium dodecyl sulfate, buffer salt (0.01 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate), and n-butanol (7%) as mobile phase.<strong> Results: </strong>The developed Micellar liquid chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection (MLC-PDA) method successfully eluted the topotecan and capsaicin with retention times of 6.2 min and 16.3, respectively. The developed method has displayed the limits of detection i.e. 0.05 and 0.98 μg/mL and limits of quantification i.e 0.08 and 1.25 μg/mL for topotecan and capsaicin, respectively. Statistical analysis further demonstrated that the developed method is linear, exact, accurate, and specific for the analysis of topotecan and capsaicin. The method was verified as per the ICH guidelines. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The developed MLC-PDA method was found to be precise, simple, and reproducible. The developed MLC-PDA method successfully estimated the topotecan and capsaicin from the combination of drugs. Micellar chromatography is an accurate, rapid, cost-effective, and less hazardous method as compared to HPLC.</p> Shivani Saraf Priyanka Pahade Devashish Bose Sanjay K Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 94 99 10.5530/223097131802 Site-Specific Delivery of Doxorubicin Using Cell-Penetrating Peptide for Lung Cancer Chemotherapy <p style="text-align: justify;">Recent studies have focused heavily on tumor-oriented nanocarriers mediated by cellpenetrating peptides (CPPs). However, the loss of CPPs in normal tissues and enzymatic degradation in circulation frequently prevented the use of CPPs <em>in vivo</em>. To alleviate these limitations, CPPs needed to be kept immobilized before they arrived at the intended target for receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). In this study, we developed CAR/DOX-Liposomes with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) entrapped in the hydrophilic core of liposomes using a thin film hydration method, and CAR peptide was subsequently conjugated through SPDP chemistry on the surface of liposomes as targeting moiety to develop and improved targeted cancer chemotherapy. The prepared liposomes were characterized and evaluated for different parameters which were recorded to be vesicle size 275.2±5.65 nm, polydispersity index 0.260±0.85, Zeta-potential -33.90±2.42 mV, and % entrapment efficiency 83.96±2.56 %. In addition, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies were conducted to assess morphology and <em>in vitro</em> drug release performed. Further, the Cell line study of the CAR/DOX-Liposomes was studied over the lung cancer cell line HOP-62 and the comparison IC<sub>50</sub> values were determined. The study establishes that CAR/DOX-Liposomes offer specific delivery of DOX to the heparan sulfate receptor(s) exclusively overexpressed on the cancer cells.</p> Laxmikant Gautam Suresh P. Vyas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 100 105 10.5530/223097131810 Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Ocimum sanctum and its Antimicrobial Activity <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives: </strong>We reported a non-toxic, low-cost and environmentally friendly green synthesis technique for the manufacture of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) utilizing<em> Ocimum sanctum </em>(<em>O. sanctum</em>) leaf extract to prevent hospital-acquired and Methicillin-resistant pathogenic bacterial infections strains. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The biogenic synthesis of Cu NPs via chemical precipitation method using <em>O. sanctum</em> phytochemical extract as stabilizing and reducing agent. Cu NPs syntheses are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to analyze and confirm size and nature of Cu NPs. <strong>Results:</strong> UV-vis spectroscopy of Cu NPs showed an absorption peak at 528 nm with calculated band gap 2.1 eV. XRD analysis indicates crystallite nature of Cu NPs having an average size 48 nm. FTIR showed involvement of <em>O. sanctum</em> extract biomolecules in capping process Cu NPs. The hexagonal morphology structure of Cu NPs nanoparticles is observed by SEM analysis. Cu NPs showed antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(38.66 ± 1.15 mm), Escherichia coli (43.33 ± 1.15 mm), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (21.66 ± 0.57 mm) and<em> Proteus vulgaris </em>(42.66± 0.57 mm). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We report synthesis of simple, inexpensive and eco-friendly <em>O. sanctum </em>mediated Cu NPs. The biophysical characterization techniques used for analyze size, shape and nature of nanoparticles. The 32 ug/ml Cu NPs concentration showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Cu NPs efficiently used to prevent <em>Proteus vulgaris</em> mediated infection.</p> Pradnya Zambare Avinash Survase Shivangi Kanase ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 106 112 10.5530/223097131692 Related Substances Method Development and Validation of Axitinib, Zanubrutinib and Upadacitinib Using RP-HPLC and its Degradation Products were Characterized by Using LC-MS/MS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Axitinib was used to treat carcinoma of renal cells and Upadacitinib was used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and Zanubrutinib used as an anti cancer medication for mantle cell lymphoma. In the current application, Zanubrutinib, Upadacitinib and Axitinib and their associated substances will be developed and validated. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The optimised method includes the Zanubrutinib, Upadacitinib and Axitinib gradient elution and associated flow rates with dimensions of 1 mL/min and phenyl column X-bridge (150 x 4.6 mm, 3.5 μ). A mobile phase was employed with 1.2 g of Hexane sulphonic acid of pH-2.5 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid (buffer) and acetonitrile. Zanubrutinib, Upadacitinib and Axitinib were separated from their associated substances for a total run time of 60 min. The approach developed has been validated in accordance with the ICH guidelines.<strong> Results:</strong> The test concentration LOD and LOQ were established for both drugs and for their impurities. The diagrams that were drawn were straightforward with an R<sup>2 </sup>regression coefficient &gt; 0.999. As part of the method validation, recovery, specificity, linearity, accuracy, robustness was determined and the results were found to be within an acceptable range. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>HPLC was used to validate the method in terms of accuracy, linearity, method precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness, and degradation, and LC-MS/MS was used to characterise the degradation products. The system was validated in all of these aspects.</p> Ibrahim Baje Syed Madhavi Nannapaneni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 113 121 10.5530/223097131696 Anti-manic and Antipsychotic Effects of Withania somnifera Extract in Rodent Model of Bipolar Disorder <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Aim: </strong>The present study was to investigate the effects of WSE improve cognitive, behavioral and mood disorders in animal models of bipolar disorder. <strong>Materials:</strong> Animals were divided into six groups each group contain 6 wistar rats of either sex ,Behavioral and memory test were carried out followed by estimation of oxidative stress and neurotransmitters in rat brain using continuous sub anesthetic dose of Amph (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) with <em>Withania somnifera</em> extract (300 mg/kg, i.p) and Lithium chloride (100mg/kg, i.p.) administered daily for 21 days. <strong>Results</strong>: % Alternation was decreased in rat treated with WSE as compared to control indicating that it also improved spatial memory and learning. various oxidative parameters were estimated, oxidative stress was observed the levels of SOD and GSH reduced and increased in TBARS level compared to control groups, but reduced ion in oxidative stress upon administration of <em>Withania somnifera </em>extract and Lithium chloride indicates ameliorating effects of <em>Withania somnifera</em> extract in oxidative stress. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: We concluded that WSE showed improvement in learning and memory as animals treated with WSE spent more time in open arms as comapared to Amphetamine with <em>Withania somnifera</em> and Lithium chloridetreated rats. Overall, the findings of this work show that neurotransmitters get imbalance and change the mood and chemistry of the brain. Hence <em>Withania somnifera</em> extract improve neurotransmitter imbalance which is directly linked with mood, behavior, anxiety and manic episodes in an animal model of bipolar disorder</p> Mohammad Rashid Iqbal Satish Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 122 128 10.5530/223097131721 Computational Studies to Identify Potential Inhibitors Targeting the DprE1 Protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> DprE1, which is a flavoenzyme, is very important for cell wall biosynthesis in <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> (Mtb) and for the pathogenesis, virulence, lethality, and stress resistance of the host. Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a challenging global human health issue, necessitating the development of novel, more effective treatment regimens without adverse effects. DprE1 represents a potential therapeutic target. It was explored as a drug target utilizing benzothiazoles (BTZ), which are enormously potential anti-bacterial agents and are currently being explored as anti-mycobacterial entities. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> We used virtual screening of bioactive molecules from PubChem and ZINC databases targeting DprE1, having bioactive thousands of molecules known for anti-microbial activity. In the present study, we selected 100 compounds as the most promising candidates to act as potential DprE1 inhibitors to control this emerging condition of tuberculosis infection. To identify the six topranked compounds, molecular docking was used to calculate the binding affinities (ranging from -8.3 to 10.0 kcal/mol) between various compounds (C1-C6) and the DprE1 protein<strong>. Results: </strong>Based on the results of an ADMET analysis, these six chemicals are safer potential drug candidates, as neither AMES toxicity nor carcinogenicity is present when toxicological properties are considered. Out of 6 compounds, the top-ranked compound exhibiting the best binding affinity against the drug target DprE1 (Pdb-id;4FEH) receptor was further subjected to molecular dynamic simulation for 100 nanoseconds to check the stability and trajectories by root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) and root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) graphs and interacting coordinates using Desmond Schrodinger Software. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our<em> in-silico</em> investigation identified potent inhibitors for the DprE1 protein of Mtb, and these compounds can be considered and recommended as the lead molecules in the treatment of tuberculosis.</p> Bashir A Sheikh Basharat A Sheikh Masood A Rizvi Zahoor Ahmad Abdullah Almilaibary Mustfa Alkhanani Manzoor A Mir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 129 138 10.5530/223097131750 Role of Novel Polyherbal Formulations in Secondary Complications like Peripheral Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes becomes a chronic disease when glucose constantly remains high and uncontrolled. As time goes off, it may gradually develop acute or chronic associated complications. Diabetic neuropathy is one of the chronic microvascular complications, reported to affect 25% of the diabetic patient and makes patient’s life disabled and life-threatening. Hence, the present research study was designed to evaluate a novel antidiabetic polyherbal formulation, for its activity against diabetic neuropathy induced in an animal model by using streptozotocin. Materials and <strong>Methods: </strong>Novel polyherbal formulations were developed and were evaluated against streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic neuropathy using 8–10 weeks old Wistar albino rats. Animals with diabetic neuropathy were subjected to standard neuro-protective evaluation parameters, including mechanical, chemical, and thermal tests. <strong>Results:</strong> Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia developed chronic neuropathic symptoms in the experimental rats between 25 - 28 days. Treatments with all four tests PHF for 8 weeks significantly improved the thermal sensation, hyperalgesia, muscle grip strength, and locomotor activity. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>By detailed research study it was revealed that out of the four polyherbal formulations studied. PHF 4 having the plant ratio of: <em>H. sabdariffa</em> (100): <em>A. marmelos</em> (50): <em>F. religiosa</em> (75): <em>A. squamosa</em> (25), the result was significantly (p &lt; 0.001) better than PHF 2, 8 and 10 (p &lt; 0.01) in reversing the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Thus, it was concluded that PHF 4 is excellent in treating diabetic neuropathy as well have excellent potential to prevent further progression and thus can be used against diabetic peripheral neuropathy.</p> Vikash Gupta Mohan Lal Kori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 139 148 10.5530/223097131485 Development and Optimization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Based Gel of Desoximetasone <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> The present study enlightens to enhance the residence time and prolonged release of the desoximetasone by incorporating it into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), prepared by hot melt homogenization process. The desoximetasone loaded SLN were incorporated into gel for topical application. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The preliminary trial batches were carried out by varying the concentration of Poloxamer 188 and lipid concentration. The prepared solid lipid nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size and % entrapment efficiency. From preliminary batches, the levels of Poloxamer 188, Glyceryl Monostearate and Homogenization speed were selected. Desoximetasone loaded SLN were optimized by box-behnken design by Design Expert software. <strong>Results:</strong> Optimization was done to study influence of X1-amount of lipid, X2-surfactant concentration and X3-speed of homogenization on particle size(Y1), polydispersity index(Y2) and % entrapment efficiency(Y3). From overlay plot, 3.330 g (X1), 0.542 g (X2) and 20930 rpm (X3) were selected. It was observed that there was influence of independent variables over dependent variables. Transmission Electron Microscopy was performed to physically check prepared SLNs. It was observed that majority of SLNs were in the range of 150-200nm. Various parameters like pH, Spreadability, Viscosity, % drug release in 24 hrs of optimized batch was found to be 7.1 ±0.04, 40.99 ± 0., 10255 ± 18.78 cps, 90.89 ± 0.52% respectively. Accelerated Stability study revealed that there were no significant changes observed upon accelerated stability conditions. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prolonged release of desoximetasone was achieved by preparing desoximetasone loaded SLN based gel for topical application.</p> Tularam Barot Urja Patel Shruti Barot Hitesh Dalvadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 149 154 10.5530/223097131840 Formulation and Evaluation of Oro-dispersible Bromhexine Hydrochloride Granules Using Sachelac-80 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Patients with sudden episodes of allergic or epileptic attacks and those who are mentally ill are less non-compliant and there is a lack of effective therapy. The need for delivering therapy at a very fast pace is the primary objective. Though oral medications exist for such patients these have their own disadvantages. <strong>Methods:</strong> Wet granulation method was used for preparation of Orodispersible (ORD) granules using Pearlitol 200 SD and Sachelac 80. Water soluble Bromhexine HCl granules were prepared by incorporating suitable surfactants, binder, to some extent co-surfactant and oils as well, so as to increase its bioavailability. The prepared granules were characterized by standard methods.<strong> Results</strong>: FTIR studies show drug- excipient compatibility. Formulation F1 shows superior results than other batches. Drug content of 97.5 %, with excellent flow properties and drug release of 102.3 % was observed for F1. A temperature of 40 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 75 ± 5% RH, was found to be most stable for F1 formulation as it indicated there were no significant changes in any of the parameters mainly in drug content. Similarly, FTIR study suggests compatibility as there are no interaction between any of the excipients as well active ingredient. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that the method used for preparation resulted in pharmaceutical preparation that had fast onset of action, enhanced bioavailability, compliance in patients, enhanced stability and was cost effective.</p> Anita P Ayre Shilpa A Gajbhiye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 155 161 10.5530/223097131733 Therapeutic Potential of Dragea volubilis Leaf Extract against Scopolamine-induced Memory Impairment in Young and Aged Mice <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>Treating neurological disorders is still a major challenge, especially diseases like alzheimer's. <em>Dragea volubilis</em> is a wonder herb with many pharmacological activities like neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory. <em>Dragea volubilis</em> is synonymously known as <em>Wattakaka volubilis</em>. Chemical exploration of <em>Dragea volubilis</em> has yielded polyoxypregnane glycosides. <strong>Objectives: </strong>This study focused to explore the cognition-enhancing and neuroprotective functions of chloroform extract of <em>Dragea volubilis</em> in young and old mice in interoceptive and exteroceptive models. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The chloroform extract of <em>Dragea volubilis</em> (CDV) was prepared by the soxhlation method. The antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and behavioral parameters were assessed through avoidance, elevated plus, and morris water maze. <em>In-vivo</em> studies were conducted by dividing the animals into 4 groups exteroceptive and 5 interoceptive (scopolamine-induced amnesia) 6 animals in each group. The scopolamine was administered at 2mg/kg and the extract of <em>Dragea volubilis </em>was administered at two different doses (100, and 200 mg/kg) for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed after behavioral parameters and brains were isolated for antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase assays. <strong>Results:</strong> A marked increase in step-down latency (SDL- passive avoidance) and a significant reduction in transfer latency (TL) in the elevated plus maze were noticed with the extract. It also demonstrated significant improvement in memory in the morris water maze (MWM) test in both the training and retention trials. CDV inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance activity (TBARS) and increased glutathione (GSH) and catalase in the mice brain showing significant antioxidant properties. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It can be concluded with results that CDV has significant potential as a nootropic and antioxidant with neuroprotective properties.</p> Amit Sharma Naresh Gill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 13 1 162 172 10.5530/223097131525 Formulation, Evaluation, and Stability testing of Polyherbal Antidiabetic Capsules <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>The phytoconstituents of single plants are inadequate to produce the desired efficacy and results. The combination of various herbal drugs in a specific proportion will improve the therapeutic efficacy by simultaneously acting on multiple targets, leading to enhanced patient compliance and therapeutic outcome. The objective of the present study was to formulate a polyherbal dosage form and to evaluate its efficacy and stability. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The polyherbal extract was prepared by mixing different alcoholic extracts of all four drugs in a ratio of 1:1:1:1. A total of six polyherbal formulations (PHF) prepared were and evaluated for their preformulation studies. The phytoconstituents present were determined through Fourier transformer Infra-Red spectroscopy evaluation. The drug was further filled into capsules of 000 size and checked for all the evaluation parameters of capsules. The drug was checked for stability studies under various conditions. <strong>Results: </strong>The PHF1 showed the best flow properties. The capsules showed a drug release of 94% in 30 min. The spectroscopic results suggested the presence of terpenes, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids in granules. The capsules were found to be stable in various types of lights but get degraded at 70% humidity and temperatures above 55°C. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This releasing pattern of medication from their capsule shell <em>in vitro</em> can be used to anticipate the releasing sequence <em>in vivo</em>. The Polyherbal capsule was shown to be fairly stable in light, temperature, and humidity.</p> Navjot Kaur Shailesh Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 13 1 173 178 10.5530/223097131753 A Design and Development of Deflazacort pH Transition Injectable in-situ Implant for Rheumatoid Arthritis <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder causing painful swelling and damaging various body systems. Deflazacort is a drug of choice for the treatment, but it exhibits lower mineral corticoid activity and lower bioavailability when administered orally. The novel formulation is required to achieve a successful release rate in a well-controlled manner and facilitate the drug's uptake.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The <em>in situ</em> injectable implants prepared has the solution following cold method using drug deflazacort with Carbopol 934P, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K4M, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K15 M undergo a rapid transition to gel state by external stimuli like pH. The fabricated formulations were evaluated for pH measurement, rheological study, drug content, gelling capacity, <em>in vitro </em>permeability studies, and release kinetics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among all the batch formulations, F14, F17, and F18 exhibited good gelling properties and optimum viscosity. <em>In vitro </em>permeation studies of F14 showed drug release of 95.45% in 24 h. Further, the drug diffusion data of F14 revealed that it followed the Higuchi model, which suggests that the drug release occurred followed Non- Fickian diffusion kinetics which is ideal for injectable <em>in situ </em>implant formulations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concluded that deflazacort injectable <em>in situ</em> implant formulations inhibit the initial burst release and sustain the drug delivery for 24 hours when administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.</p> Ashwathi V Nair Sindhoor SM Prashant Nayak Natasha Naval Aggarwal Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed Prajitha Biju ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-17 2022-11-17 13 1 179 186 10.5530/223097131727 A Cross-sectional Survey to Understand the Public Attitude towards Attributes of COVID-19 Vaccine in the Chhattisgarh State of India <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background and Objectives</strong>: This survey is conducted to understand the attitude of the population towards vaccination for COVID-19. Perception regarding COVID -19 vaccination such as efficacy, duration of protection, etc can affect the affinity of the population for readiness, enthusiasm, and willingness. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A qualitative cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted during December 2020 and January 2021 at Chhattisgarh province of India. A bilingual questionnaire consisted of questions on belief, willingness, and attitude to receive future COVID-19 vaccination was developed. The non-probability purposive sample of 1717 respondent (1026 responded online while 691 responses offline) were chosen in this study. <strong>Results: </strong>60% and 40% of respondents were male and female respectively. 51.4% of respondents belonged to 31-40yrs of age. 46.1 % of respondents believe that COVID-19 vaccine can prevent COVID-19 illness. In 82% of respondents, willingness was observed for COVID-19 vaccination, and willingness was highly dependent on literacy and qualification. Data support a good belief and willingness of the people from Chhattisgarh province towards the COVID-19 vaccination. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The current study annuls the illusion and future hesitancy towards vaccination drive. The government must consider vaccine attributes like cost, the nation of vaccine origin, vaccine booth distances and attitude of the population like education status, occupation, socio-economic status, previous vaccination experience should also be undertaken for the largest single vaccine drive.</p> Pradip Chaurasia Shrikant R Inchulkar Gyanenedra Singh Baghel Mukund Lal Naik Lowkesh Chandravanshi Satyavati Rathiya Muhammed Thareekh Bin Bashir Rashmi Sahu Manish Minj Nagendra Singh Chauhan Awanish Kumar Prashant Kumar Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 13 1 187 200 10.5530/223097130002 Effective Scientific Writing Series: Part I <p style="text-align: justify;">A scientific manuscript is a formal document that is submitted for publication in a scientific journal. The format of a scientific manuscript varies depending on the journal, but usually includes an abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and references sections. In this article, we will provide an overview of the elements of a scientific manuscript and how to prepare one for submission to a journal. In this article, we will be discussing the process of writing a scientific manuscript in different parts. We will go over the different sections of a scientific manuscript and what should be included in each one. With this knowledge in hand, you will be able to start writing your own scientific manuscripts. The process of writing a scientific manuscript can be daunting, but it is a necessary part of sharing your research with the world. We will give you a step-by-step guide on how to write a scientific manuscript so that you can get your work published in a journal. This article will highlight the process of selecting a journal for the scientific manuscript. <strong>Read more . . .</strong></p> Mueen Ahmed KK Mohammed Yunus Parasuraman S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 13 1 201 205 10.5530/223097130003