Apoptosis Induction and Anticancer Activity of 2, 4-bis (1-phenylethyl) Phenol from Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f. in vitro
Objectives: Plant phenolic have extended significance as a promising therapeutic candidate for several disorders including cancer. Apoptosis is a well-organized cell death that has importance in cancer research. The present study was aimed to isolate 2, 4-bis (1-phenylethyl) -phenol from Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f. and evaluation of cytotoxicity on human breast cancer cells. Methods: MTT assay was used to estimate cell viability. Apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V/PI staining, EtBr staining, cell cycle analysis and MMP assay. Results: In this study 2,4-bis (1-phenylethyl) -phenol was separated from aerial parts of C. thomsoniae and its structure was confirmed by different spectroscopic methods. The IC50 value was determined based on cell viability rates and the value was calculated as 12. 58 (μg/mL). Apoptosis analysis by annexin V/PI staining showed that died cells were stained as red fluorescence. The loss of mitochondrial potential as a result of the induction of apoptosis was noted. The EtBr assay showed early apoptotic cells, late apoptotic cells, necrotic cells and, dead cells with characteristic fluorescence. The apoptosis induction of 2, 4-bis (1-phenylethyl) –phenol was also noticed in Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry. Conclusion: The outcome of this research work, we can conclude that 2, 4-bis (1-phenylethyl)-phenol may be a successful candidate for breast cancer therapy via apoptosis activation and farther in vivo studies are required to evaluate this compound for its safety and efficacy as a potential anticancer candidate.