Evaluation of Antiurolithiatic Potential of Piper cubeba Dried Fruits on Sodium Oxalate Induced Urolithiasis in Rats
Objectives: The main endeavor of the work is to assess the antiurolithiatic potentials of ethanolic extract of Piper cubeba dried fruits (EEPC). Methods: EEPC was prepared using soxhlation, subjected to phytochemical screening and determined total phenolic and flavonoid content using Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay methods. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assays using ascorbic acid as standard. Sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg, i.p) was given to rats for 5 days to promote urolithiasis. Cystone (750mg/kg, p. o), EEPC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) was administered to the respective group of rats from 6th to 15th day. On the 15th day, serum and urine were collected from individual animals and biochemical parameters like BUN, creatinine and uric acid in serum and sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate, oxalate in urine and calcium, phosphate and oxalate in kidney homogenate have been measured. The kidney sections have been prepared and histopathologically tested to check the stones. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis discloses the existence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. The EEPC enriched with phenols and flavonoids which correlates with its antioxidant potentials. Following treatment with cystone and EEPC, concentrations of BUN, creatinine, uric acid in serum and sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate, oxalate in urine and calcium, phosphate, oxalate in kidney homogenate (P<0.001 vs. control) were significantly reduced in urolithiasis caused by sodium oxalate in a dose-dependent way. Conclusion: The promising results suggest that EEPC would act as a potential agent in the management of urolithiasis along with its antioxidant properties.