Physiochemical Characterization and Anti-colon Cancer Activity of Biosurfactant Produced from Marine Pseudomonas sp.
Background: Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules produced by the living micro-organisms. They have wide application in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industry due to its physiological and functional properties. Objectives: In the present study, biosurfactant produced from Pseudomonas sp. was used for its physiochemical characterizations and anti-tumergenic property against colon cancer cell line (SW480). Materials and Methods: The biosurfactant was produced in Bushnell Haas Broth media and extracted by solvent extraction method. The physiochemical characterizations such as water solubility index, water activity, foaming index, oil holding capacity of extracted biosurfactant were performed. The degree of toxicity of biosurfactant was measured using a conversion assay of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye against SW480 and mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line (non-tumergenic). Furthermore, acridine orange-EtBr (ethidium bromide) staining, Dichlorofluorescein Diacetate (DCF-DA) staining, wound healing assay were performed to determine the anti-colon cancer activity of biosurfactant. Results: The oil holding capacity, water activity (aw), foaming capacity and water solubility index for biosurfactant were found to be 4.36 ± 0.05 g/g, 0.32 ± 0.03, 52.28 ± 0.10 % and 80.86 ± 0.20 % respectively. In the MTT assay, after 48 h of incubation, 84.7% of cell viability on L292 was observed at 250 μg/ml (maximum concentration) for biosurfactant. Whereas, only 50% cell viability was observed after 48 h of incubation on SW480 at 168.52 μg/ml biosurfactant concentration. Conclusion: The biosurfactant could be a bench-mark as a non-cytotoxic biosurfactant which may be used as a possible biological substance in the food industry as a stabilizing agent and in pharmaceutical industry as an anti-colon cancer agent.