Lipid Nanoparticle Topical and Transdermal Delivery: A Review on Production, Penetration Mechanism to Skin
Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have an advanced and modern approach over the traditional delivery system. This systematic review on nanoparticulate drug delivery containing lipid and focus on preparation, challenges and advancement of delivery of the drug via topical and transdermal route. The first era of lipid nanoparticles were SLN and have more sustaining action as well as suitable for the higher permeation of drug. The NLC is the second generation lipid nanoparticles developed to overcome the limitation associated with SLN i.e low drug loading capacity, polymorphism of solid lipid. Production of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers are produced by a variety of technologies which explored in the current review. Lipid nanoparticle has various properties for topical use of cosmetics and other pharmaceutical formulation, i.e. controlled and sustained release of medicaments, Physical and chemical stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients, targeted release, film formation and enhancing penetration with the enhancement of skin hydration. Skin hydration plays a major role in the topical delivery of API as it hydrates the skin which leads to opening of pores of skin. Due to occlusion nature of lipid nanoparticles trans epidermal water loss decline which softening the skin. The use of biodegradable grade lipid makes it more suitable because it does not cause any toxicity as created by polymeric nanoformulations. Furthermore, a discussion about the benefit/risk ratio of a nanoparticulate system containing lipids also explored in this paper. The SLN and NLC are a “nanosafe” carrier for the delivery of active pharmaceutical via topical route.