Formulation and Evaluation of Sunscreen Gels Containing Mangiferin Isolated from Phaleria macrocarpa Fruits
Objectives: Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photoreaction and photo-oxidation damage the skin, which can be prevented by using sunscreens as photo protective agents. Mangiferin is a major constituent of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits that has both sunscreen and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate sunscreen gel made from mangiferin isolated from P. marcocarpha fruits. Methods: Sunscreen gels were formulated using three different concentrations of mangiferin (1.25%, 2.5%, and 5%) and their physicochemical parameters (color, odor, homogeneity, spread ability, pH, and accelerated stability) were tested. The in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of the gels was determined using UV spectrophotometry. Sensory evaluation (hedonic test) was performed with a panel of 32 untrained panelists. Skin irritation test was conducted on 20 female volunteers using a skin patch. Results: The three mangiferin sunscreen gels showed high absorbance at wavelengths of 290–360 nm. The SPF was 11.2, 38.6, and and 88.53 at a mangiferin concentration of 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5%, respectively. The gels’ pH was in the proper range (5.8–6.0), and they showed good spread ability, no phase separation, and acceptable consistency. They were found to be stable during a two-month stability study. A gel containing 2.5% concentration of mangiferin is the most preferred formula. In addition, they did not irritate the skin. Conclusion: Gels formulation containing mangiferin at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, and 5% are effective as sunscreens. The gel meets the requirements on physicochemical parameters and is stable for two months storages at temperatures 8°C, 25°C and 40°C.