Synergetic Effects of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles in the Presence of Radiofrequency Radiation on Human Kidney Cells
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of radiofrequency radiation (RF) in synergism with gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on the survival fraction of human normal kidney (HNK) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Materials and Methods: HNK and HEK cells were divided into three groups as control, 1 and 2 h/day‑irradiated groups for 8 days. To compare the effects of RF in the presence of Au‑NPs and Ag‑NPs, the cells were incubated with NPs during the irradiation. In other words, six other groups were designed for the cell incubated with Au‑NPs and Ag‑NPs including control, 1 and 2 h/day‑irradiated groups for 8 days. Generalized estimating equation model was applied to consider the natural correlation of repeated measurements over the time. Results: The mean survival fractions of HNK + Ag‑NPs and HEK + Au‑NPs were 0.098 less, 0.184 and 0.055 more than HEK cells, respectively. Along with the time, the mean fraction in HEK + Ag‑NPs and HEK + Au‑NPs groups in comparison with the HEK increased by the rate of 0.005 and decreased by the rates of 0.01 and 0.005, respectively. The mean survival fractions in HEK + Ag‑NPs and HEK + Au‑NPs were significantly less than that of HEK cells (P < 0.05). Conclusions: RF radiation can affect both HNK and HEK cells when irradiated for 2 h/day for 8 days. The results showed that the Ag‑NPs do not increase the synergistic effects of RF compared to the Au‑NPs. RF radiation at the presence of Au‑NPs can be used as an efficient treatment for melanoma.