Fluorescence Emission and Molecular Docking Studies Identified Novobiocin as a Potent Inhibitor of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) Envelope Protei
Introduction: The Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) causes the acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as Japanese encephalitis. JEV is a RNA virus (+strand) that is tiny, enclosed, and from the family Flavivirus. The envelope protein (E), which facilitates JEV entrance into the host cell, has been chosen as a possible molecular aim for therapeutic progress in this work. Materials and Methods: The 3D structure of E protein was retrieved from RCSB PDB (id: 3P54). The sdf files of four lead molecules namely etoposide, netropsin, nogalamycin, and novobiocin were downloaded from the PubChem and used for molecular docking against JEV E protein. We then assessed the fluorescence emission intensity of JEV alone and JEV bound to novobiocin at 280–500 nM to confirm the inhibition of JEV by Novobiocin. The secondary structure of JEV was ascertained by measuring its CD spectra. The CD spectra of JEV were examined as a function of temperature to evaluate the protein constancy. Results: Our docking and fluorescence emission spectra results showed that JEV E pro has good binding preference for novobiocin among these four test compounds. Moreover, fluorescence emission spectra of JEV E protein with novobiocin also revealed the 5 μM concentration is an effective novobiocin concentration to inhibit the activity of target protein. One top ranked lead molecule namely novobiocin with strong binding affinity (-8.574 Kcal/mol) to JEV E protein was known based on binding energy. Results of the CD Spectra made it quite evident that there is no random coil. Peaks in the negative range (troughs) at 210–230 nm in the CD spectra indicate that JEV has a secondary structure rich in helices. The data unambiguously show that there is no appreciable variation in the JEV curves. Conclusion: Conclusion of the current work offer a thorough understanding of how the JEV E protein is inhibited and provide information that will help novobiocin be developed as a therapeutic drug against JEV E protein in certain viral diseases.