Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and GC-MS Characterization of Urochloa distachya (L.)
Background: The helminthiasis parasitic worm present in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal cause infection and physiological damage. This occurs due to poor sanitation, impecunious personal hygiene, low socioeconomic position, and lack of education. Aim: Urochloa distachya (Poaceae) commonly called as signal grass and used as fodder for the animal. The present investigation was undertaken to investigate the phytochemicals and to study the anthelmintic activity. Materials and Methods: The plant material was extracted by using petroleum ether and methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and the obtained extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis for the identification of the bioactive components responsible for anthelmintic activity. The anthelmintic activity was performed against earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at concentrations 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/mL using piperazine citrate as standard. Results: The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether extract showed five major and ten minor compounds. The major compounds were identified as Stigmasterol (14.76%); α-Amyrin (12.47%); γ-Sitosterol (10.31%); 17-(1,5-Dimethyl-3-phen ylthiohex-4-enyl) -4,4,10,13,14-pentamethyl 2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12-(9.12%) and β-Amyrin (8.83%). The minor compounds were D:C-Friedo-B': A'-neogammacer-9(11)-ene, 3-methoxy-, (3β)-(8.28%); Tritetracontane (7.23%); Campesterol (4.68%); Phytol (4.05%); Cholesterol (3.39%); Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.20%); 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-(1.46%); Oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester (1.27%); Squalene (0.84%) and 9,19-Cyclolanostane-3,7-diol (0.68%). The time taken for paralysis and death of Eisenia fetida parasite was noticed by methanolic and petroleum ether extract at a concentration of 50 mg/kg as compared to the standard drug. Conclusion: The anthelmintic activity of the plant was most achieved by methanolic extract which could be attributed to the presence of the Octadecanoic acid. Also, the anthelmintic active of the petroleum ether extract could be attributed to the antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities of the Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester; Phytol; Squalene; Cholesterol, and γ-Sitosterol.