Comprehensions keen on the biology of Brain tumors: Possibilities and Challenges
The word “tumor” is a Greek term that refers to a swelling or a lump. In modern medical terms, a tumor is usually an abnormal mass of cells and tissues, which grows due to the abnormal division of cells. The unnatural division of cells occurs due to the cancerous nature of these cells, which no longer obey standard checkpoints that prevent healthy or non-cancerous cells from uncontrolled cell divisions. Tumors may be circumscribed or diffuse depending on whether they remain localized to a part of the brain or spread to other parts aggressively by metastasis; in 2016, WHO has classified tumors of the brain or central nervous system by taking into account the latest molecular genetic data along with classic histopathological features characteristic of each kind of tumor. The new classification system makes diagnosis more precise, but a better analysis of prognosis is now possible since genotype is far more determinative and accurate than histological phenotype. Modern technologies like high throughput gene sequencing, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, and personalized medicine approaches have improved the prognosis of brain tumor patients. They have also revolutionized our understanding of the biology of brain tumors and how they are now being treated. In this review, we will discuss the latest knowledge about the biology of brain tumors and how modern technologies are helping to understand the molecular basis of these pathologies and develop better treatment options to improve patient survival.