Moringa oleifera Methanolic Extract Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells
Background: Moringa oleifera Lam. (Family: Moringaceae), commonly known as ‘drumstick tree’ is beneficial to obtain sustenance as a food source and applied as a traditional medicine. The therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera emphasizes on the inhibition of cancer proliferation and its versatile applications in Pharmacology which provide novel by-products and nutritive dietary supplements for human consumption. The objective of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of M. oleifera leaves methanolic extract (MOME) against the invasive breast cancer cell lines such as T-47D and MDA-MB-231. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of MOME were cultured individually with breast cancer cells, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. The cell viability was determined after 24 hrs of treatment using MTT Assay (-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) to analyse the anti-proliferative effect of MOME on cell lines, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. The cell cycle assay and apoptosis were evaluated by Annexin V- FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit, followed by the analysis through Attune flow cytometer. Results: The IC50 values of MOME in T-47 D and MDA-MB231 were found 45.33 ± 5.2 μg/mL and 24.44 ± 3 μg/mL, respectively. The G2M phase population exhibited an increase of 60.4% in MOME treated T-47D cells and 11.6% in MDA-MB231 cells. The population of early apoptosis cells increased to 37.1% in MOME treated cells. The time and dose dependent treatment with MOME inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cells. The externalization of phosphatidylserine on membrane of T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cells confirmed the apoptosis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MOME actively contributes to cell cycle arrest and inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner; thus, evaluated as the first report of apoptosis induced in triple negative breast cancer cells by MOME. The cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase depicted G2/M enrichment to emphasize on the efficacy of MOME, thus representing as an ideal anti-cancer agent against human breast cancer cells. The dose-dependent methanolic extract of leaves of M. oleifera was found as a promising antiproliferating agent against the invasive breast cancer cells.