The Evaluation of Calcium Oxalate Crystal Nucleation, Aggregation and Phytochemical Compositions of Cissus adnata Roxb. and Cissus discolor Blume
Background: From time immemorial medicinal plants are used in treating urolithiasis in ayurvedic system and other forms of traditional health practitioners. In Manipur, local traditional health practitioners used Cissus adnata Roxb. and Cissus discolor Blume for treating kidney stone problems. However, proper scientific validation is not well studied and evaluated. Methods: The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the chloroform extract of Cissus adnata Roxb. (CAc) and Cissus discolor Blume (CDc) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal nucleation and aggregation using spectrophotometer. Furthermore, phytochemical studies of both plants were performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS), Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Results: CDc exhibited significantly higher inhibitory effect on nucleation and aggregation of CaOx than CAc and Cystone (p<0.05). GC-MS analysis of the CDc and CAc revealed presence of nine compounds, the highest area percentage occupied by stigmasterol in CAc and gamma-sitosterol in CDc. Elemental analyses of both plants detected twenty elements, strontium being the dominant element. The reduction in CaOx nucleation and crystal aggregation by CAc and CDc observed in this study could be attributed to calcium replacement by strontium. Conclusion: This study reported the inhibitory effect on CaOx crystal aggregation and nucleation by CAc and CDc in the in vitro assay. Further in vivo studies are necessary to validate the inhibitory effect of the studied plant extracts.