Scientific Appraisal of Classical Calcination Process of Kushta (Calx) in Reference to Calx of Copper Sulphate
Background: Kushta, a dosage form of Unani medicine is prepared by employing well-designed procedures. The correct procedure ensures the production of Kamil (perfect) Kushta considered as safe, while a deviation from the method results in an Naqis (imperfect) Kushta, which is liable to induce adverse effects. The characteristic parameters of such Kushta are not discrete enough to distinguish perfect and imperfect Kushta (s). Purpose of the study was analysis of Kushta taking Kushta Tutia (Copper sulphate) (KT) as example for characterization of the perfect and imperfect manufacturing process and to establish standard parameters. Methods: For the preparation of Kushta Tutia Kamil (KTK) the method mentioned in classical Unani text Kitabut Taklees was employed whereas for preparation of Kushta Tutia Naqis (KTN), deviations were made in standard method. Analytical techniques viz. XRD, FESEM and ICP-MS were used for characterization of KTK and KTN along with some physicochemical parameters. Acute toxicity study was also carried out by OECD Guidelines (423). Results: Findings indicated differences between KTK and KTN in terms of particle size, trace elements and end-product. Copper sulphate (CuSo4) phase changed into Calcium sulphate and altered Copper phase - CU in KTN and Anhydrite Calcium Sulphate - Ca (SO4) and CUO in KTK. No mortality was noted in KTK and KTN both up to 2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: Differences in the analytical findings of KTN and KTK validated the perfect procedure of making KT, with end product displaying absence of toxic CuSo4 phase.