International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation

: 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1--9

Insulin delivery methods: Past, present and future

Rima B Shah1, Manhar Patel2, David M Maahs3, Viral N Shah3 
1 Department of Pharmacology, GMERS Medial College, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
2 Brain Research and Intervention Center, University of Illinois, Chicago, USA
3 Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado, Denver, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rima B Shah
Department of Pharmacology, GMERS Medical College, Gnadhinagar - 382 012, Gujarat
Viral N Shah
Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, 1775 Aurora Ct, MS A140, Colorado

Many patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and all patients with T1DM require insulin to keep blood glucose levels in the target range. The most common route of insulin administration is subcutaneous insulin injections. There are many ways to deliver insulin subcutaneously such as vials and syringes, insulin pens, and insulin pumps. Though subcutaneous insulin delivery is the standard route of insulin administration, it is associated with injection pain, needle phobia, lipodystrophy, noncompliance and peripheral hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, the need exists for delivering insulin in a minimally invasive or noninvasive and in most physiological way. Inhaled insulin was the first approved noninvasive and alternative way to deliver insulin, but it has been withdrawn from the market. Technologies are being explored to make the noninvasive delivery of insulin possible. Some of the routes of insulin administration that are under investigation are oral, buccal, nasal, peritoneal and transdermal. This review article focuses on the past, present and future of various insulin delivery techniques. This article has focused on different possible routes of insulin administration with its advantages and limitation and possible scope for the new drug development.

How to cite this article:
Shah RB, Patel M, Maahs DM, Shah VN. Insulin delivery methods: Past, present and future.Int J Pharma Investig 2016;6:1-9

How to cite this URL:
Shah RB, Patel M, Maahs DM, Shah VN. Insulin delivery methods: Past, present and future. Int J Pharma Investig [serial online] 2016 [cited 2018 Dec 12 ];6:1-9
Available from:;year=2016;volume=6;issue=1;spage=1;epage=9;aulast=Shah;type=0