International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi <blockquote>International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation is an official publication of Phcog.Net, publishing peer-reviewed scholarly reviews, themed issues and research articles within the entire scope of the pharmaceutics. The journal particularly aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts related to current pharmaceutical drug delivery and related fields and submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of pharmaceutical drug delivery are welcomed. The journal publishes the following categories of manuscripts: research papers presenting original research, reviews, short communications, letter to the editor, commentaries, etc. including critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in pharmaceutical drug delivery. <br><br></blockquote> <p><strong>Subjects covered in the journal</strong></p> <p>The journal aims to cater the latest outstanding developments in the field of Pharmaceutical sciences and Technology covering the following topics (non-limiting):</p> <blockquote>· Pharmaceutics<br> · Nanotechnology<br> · Current Novel Drug Delivery Systems<br> · Quality control of Pharmaceuticals<br> · Quality Assurance<br> · National and International Regulatory Affairs<br> · Validation Techniques<br> · Industrial Pharmacy<br> · Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition<br> · Pharmacokinetics<br> · Drug Development<br> · Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Rights.</blockquote> EManuscript en-US International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 2230-973X Lipid Nanoparticle Topical and Transdermal Delivery: A Review on Production, Penetration Mechanism to Skin http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/378 <p>Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have an advanced and modern&nbsp;approach over the traditional delivery system. This systematic review on&nbsp;nanoparticulate drug delivery containing lipid and focus on preparation,&nbsp;challenges and advancement of delivery of the drug via topical and transdermal&nbsp;route. The first era of lipid nanoparticles were SLN and have more&nbsp;sustaining action as well as suitable for the higher permeation of drug. The&nbsp;NLC is the second generation lipid nanoparticles developed to overcome&nbsp;the limitation associated with SLN i.e low drug loading capacity, polymorphism&nbsp;of solid lipid. Production of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured&nbsp;lipid carriers are produced by a variety of technologies which explored&nbsp;in the current review. Lipid nanoparticle has various properties for topical&nbsp;use of cosmetics and other pharmaceutical formulation, i.e. controlled&nbsp;and sustained release of medicaments, Physical and chemical stability&nbsp;of active pharmaceutical ingredients, targeted release, film formation and&nbsp;enhancing penetration with the enhancement of skin hydration. Skin hydration&nbsp;plays a major role in the topical delivery of API as it hydrates the&nbsp;skin which leads to opening of pores of skin. Due to occlusion nature of&nbsp;lipid nanoparticles trans epidermal water loss decline which softening the&nbsp;skin. The use of biodegradable grade lipid makes it more suitable because&nbsp;it does not cause any toxicity as created by polymeric nanoformulations.&nbsp;Furthermore, a discussion about the benefit/risk ratio of a nanoparticulate&nbsp;system containing lipids also explored in this paper. The SLN and NLC are&nbsp;a “nanosafe” carrier for the delivery of active pharmaceutical via topical&nbsp;route.</p> Dilip Kumar Patel Roohi Kesharwani Vikas Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 148 153 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.28 Homology Modelling and Molecular Docking Studies of Interleukin 10 Proteins from Different Species http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/402 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Interleukin-10 is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine that&nbsp;plays significant roles in auto immune diseases. Interleukin-10 has been involved&nbsp;as an important regulator of the functions of myeloid cells lymphoid&nbsp;cells. The three-Dimensional structure and functions of Interleukin-10, proteins&nbsp;from different species are not known. In the present study, we analyzed&nbsp;the comparative study of 3D structure of eight different species of&nbsp;Interleukin-10 proteins and also molecular docking studies were performed&nbsp;to all the modelled structures. <strong>Methods:</strong> Comparative modelling was performed&nbsp;to all the selected eight proteins by using Modeller 9.21, a modelling&nbsp;tool. Initial alignment was performed by using clustal X and validated&nbsp;by using Procheck. Further molecular docking study was performed by using&nbsp;Autodock 4.2. <strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> Homology modeling studies of&nbsp;all the modelled proteins showed that all the amino acid residues present&nbsp;in core region and there is no amino acid residue in disallowed region.&nbsp;A molecular docking study was also carried out to study the stability of Interleukin-10 proteins. Docking studies were performed by using natural&nbsp;compounds as Interleukin-10 protein inhibitors. All the compounds exhibited&nbsp;good binding energies and good interactions. Binding energies ranged&nbsp;from -4.51 to -9.82 Kcal/mol. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Homology modelling and docking&nbsp;study results indicate that the natural compounds are showing good&nbsp;interactions with all the modelled interleukin-10 proteins. To this study we&nbsp;get significant information for the design of novel inhibitors for the treatment&nbsp;of inflammation.</p> Keerthana Pasam Vaishnavi Mallojala Shravan Kumar Gunda Seshagiri Bandi Mahmood Shaik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 154 157 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.29 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Cr(III) Complex with Mixed N,N and O-donor Ligands http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/362 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> 2-aminobenzonitrile is used as the starting materials for the synthesis of many biologically active compounds. The main objective of the study was to synthesize, characterization and biological evaluation of a binuclear bridged Cr(III) complex containing 2-aminobenzonitrile (N,Ndonor) and octanoate ion (OC) as ligands. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study formulated, the required mole ratio of 2-aminobenzonitrile in methanol and sodium octanoate in ethanol were added to the chromium chloride in methanol followed by microwave irradiation for few seconds after each addition by using microwave oven and the precipitate was filtered off, washed with 1:1 ethanol: water and characterized by various spectral studies and biological significance. <strong>Results:</strong> The resulted complex was investigated by the help of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, electronic spectra, FT-IR, cyclic voltammetry, thermal analysis and powder-XRD techniques. The spectral data’s indicates that the geometry of the complex is octahedral. The antimicrobial activities of ligands and their Cr(III) complex were studied by agar-well diffusion method. The free radical scavenging activity of the complex and the ligands has been determined by measuring their interaction with the stable free radical DPPH. DNA-binding properties have been studied by fluorescence-emission method. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The formulated Cr(III) complex showed moderate and potential activity against the tested bacteria, enhanced activity against the fungi and larger antioxidant activity as compared to the free ligands. The DNA binding study result suggests that the complex strongly binds to DNA.</p> R Govindharaju N Muruganantham S Balasubramaniyan L Palanivelan B Jayalakshmi K Rajalakshmi T Ramachandramoorthy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 158 163 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.30 An Investigation through the Pharmacotechnical Factors-to Develop a Method to Replace a Super Disintegrant in an Immediate Release Tablet http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/404 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present work aim to identify the process parameters and technical parameters of granules that affect the disintegration time of an IR tablet. There by utilizing this knowledge to develop an IR tablet without any Super Disintegrants (SD). <strong>Methods:</strong> The experiments were designed using Design-Expert<sup>®</sup>. A two factorial design at two levels (-1, + 1) were selected. The study evaluated the effect of particle size and Binder concentration (BC) on Disintegration Time (DT), Hardness and Compressibility index (CI). <strong>Discussion:</strong> The CI below 16% can be achieved for the granules prepared with particle size &gt; 670μ m and binder concentration&gt; 18.56mg for PVP K 30. The particle sizes do not possess any impact on disintegration time. The granules prepared at the 250μ size and 600μ size shoes similar disintegration time. However, the particle size affects hardness and CI. The BC has a strong impact on hardness, CI and DT. Even though the particle size does not have a direct impact on DT, it affects the hardness, which has a greater impact on DT. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study identified the technical methods and suggests certain formula to attain the low disintegration time, excellent hardness for an IR tablet and fair flow property for the prepared granules. The particle size has a direct impact on the hardness of the tablet. The formula serves as an excellent alternative for SD at an industrial level, to make the drug product more economical and more effective.</p> Dhanish Joseph S.R. Suseem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 164 168 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.31 Production and Optimization of Xylanase Enzyme from Bacillus subtilis using Agricultural Wastes by Solid State Fermentation http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/405 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Xylan, a major hemicellulosic polysaccharide found in the plant cell wall, represents up to 30-35% of the total dry weight of land plants. It is a heteropolysaccharide made up of a backbone of 1, 4-linked β-D-xylopyranosyl residues which can be substituted to varying degrees with glucopyranosyl, α-L-arabinofuranosyl, acetyl, feruloyl and/or p-coumaryl side chain groups. Hemicelluloses are used in various industries such as fuel, food, detergent, animal feed, agriculture, wine, beer, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The main objective of the study is to explore easy and cost effective method to produce the xylanase using sugar cane bagasse, wheat bran and rice bran as substrates, which is an agro waste. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Xylanase producing bacteria were isolated from soil. Among the isolates, three strains show the maximum activity on xylan agar plates. Among the three strains, a strain was shows maximum enzyme activity, which was measured by Dinitro Salicylic Acid (DNS) method. The isolates were identified as <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimization of the fermentation medium for production of maximum xylanase was carried out via solid state fermentation (SSF). <strong>Results:</strong> The highest production of xylanase was obtained on 3% xylose as a carbon source, 3% malt extract as a nitrogen source and 3% sugarcane bagasse at 40°C, pH 9, 3.5% Inoculum level at 48 hr.<em> Bacillus subtilis</em> are capable to produce the xylanase. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The isolated strain <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> shows the maximum level of xylanase production at pH 9.0 and 40°C temperature on 48 hr incubation on 3% xylose, 3% malt extract and 3% sugarcane bagasse as a substrate during solid state fermentation.</p> Moorthy Marimuthu Anbalagan Sorimuthu Sankareswaran Muruganantham ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 169 173 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.32 Preparation, Solid-State Characterization, Phase Solubility and Dissolution Studies of Azithromycin/Hydroxypropyl-β- Cyclodextrin Host-Guest System http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/365 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Azithromycin has poor aqueous solubility and its dissolution is the rate-limiting step. Therefore the objective of this work to increase the solubility and dissolution of azithromycin. Hence aim of the study was to develop, characterize and evaluate dissolution properties of inclusion complexes of Azithromycin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). <strong>Methods:</strong> Phase solubility was performed by Higuchi and Connors’s method for determination of stoichiometry of AZM/ β-CD and AZM/ HP-β-CD inclusion complex. It again confirmed by Jobs plot. Inclusion complex of Azithromycin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared by kneading method and solvent evaporation method in molar ratio of 1:1. The inclusion complex in solid state was characterized by FT-IR, DSC, HNMR, SEM. <strong>Results:</strong> AL type was found in the phase solubility diagram which indicated the development of the inclusion complex in 1:1 stoichiometry with HP-β-CD. The stability constant decrease with increasing temperature. All thermodynamic parameters for the inclusion complex were calculated from Van’t Hoff plots. The highest enhancement in dissolution and solubility were observed in the inclusion complex developed with HPβ-CD using the kneading method. FT-IR spectra exhibited that the hydroxyl group of azithromycin was participate in inclusion process. DSC study supported<br>amorphization of drug molecule and entrapment of drug in the HP-β-CD cavity. It further confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy studies. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The solubility was significantly improved by the inclusion complex with HP-β-CD (9 fold). The dissolution of azithromycin was improved with inclusion phenomena using kneading method. The result of studies showed the inclusion of Azithromycin molecule inside HP-β-CD cavities.</p> Mihir Raval Hina Bagada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 174 179 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.33 Evaluation of Nootropic activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Root Extracts of Adhatoda vasica nees in Rodents http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/401 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The Present study was planned to evaluate the nootropic activity of ehanolic extract of <em>Adhatoda vasica</em> <em>nees</em> (EERAV) and aqueous extract of <em>A. vasica</em> (AQERAV) in experimentally induced amnesic models in mice and rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> AERAV and AQERAV were prepared successively with roots of <em>A. vasica</em> using soxhlet apparatus. LD<sub>50</sub> studies for these two extracts were carried out in albino mice up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg as per guidelines No. 425 of CPCSEA. EERAV and AQERAV were studied for their nootropic effect evaluated in five different experimental models like Active (Rats) and Passive avoidance, Diazepam, Scopolamine, Sodium nitrite induced amnesia and Sodium nitrite induced hypoxia models all in mice. The parameters studied in nootropic activity are Step Down Latency (SDL), Step Down Error (SDE), Time spent in Shock Zone (TSZ), Number of shocks, Transfer Latency (TL) and Time for cessation of respiration. <strong>Results:</strong> No mortality observed even at the highest dose tested (2000 mg/kg) and did not produce any significant effect on locomotor activity in mice. Experimental studies have shown that EERAV and AQERAV have exhibited a dose dependent nootropic activity. A Significant nootropic activity was recorded with both the extracts in Active and Passive avoidance, Scopolamine, Diazepam and Sodium nitrite induced amnesia models. AQERAV exhibited a significant nootropic effect with medium and high doses only in Active and Passive avoidance models, scopolamine and Diazepam induced amnesia models.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> The present study suggests that both extracts possessed a significant nootropic activity in mice and rats.</p> Kola Venu Prasenjit Mondal Rajesh BRC Arjun Goje Gummadevelly Sandeep Manish Kumar Thimmaraju Shaik Chanbasha Bhookya Padmaja ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 180 186 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.34 Gastroprotective Effect of Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook. and Arn. Leaves Extracts in Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/352 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Peptic ulcer is a disease caused by imbalance between protective and aggressive factors in the gastric mucosa. <em>Acacia aroma</em> Gill. ex Hook. and Arn. (tusca) is widely used in Argentinian’s folk medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of two <em>A. aroma</em> leaf extracts, 5% infusion and 10% hydroalcoholic extract in experimental models of acute gastric ulceration in rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> The gastroprotective action of the extracts was evaluated in absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in adult Westar rats through macroscopic, histological and biochemical analyses of the stomach and gastric wall. We also determined the effects on the gastric juice parameters with a pylorus ligature model in rats. Evaluation of the&nbsp;acute toxicity of each extract was performed in adult normal Wistar rats. All results were statistically analyzed. <strong>Results:</strong> The lowest effective dose was 150 mg/Kg for each extract. Both of them showed a high protection of the mucosa against absolute ethanol. Pre-treatments with the extracts produced a significant increase in adherent mucus. These extracts showed a free radical scavenging capacity and they caused a significant reduction of the malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione levels, catalase and myeloperoxidase activities. The animals presented no signs of acute toxicity indicating a high safety margin for both extracts. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study shows for the first time the gastroprotective efficacy of 5% infusion and 10% hydroalcoholic extract of <em>A. aroma</em> leaves, highlighting their benefits as a prophylactic approach to maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosa.</p> Felix Facundo Taboada Natalia Cecilia Habib Susana Beatriz Genta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 187 194 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.35 Antidiabetic Potential of Flavones on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rat http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/353 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of the study was to develop new antidiabetic agents from synthetic route. <strong>Methods:</strong> An attempt was made to synthesize various flavones. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by UV, IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, an <em>in vivo</em> antidiabetic activity study was carried out by streptozotocin induced model. Biochemical parameters were extensively studied to support antidiabetic potential of synthesized flavones. <strong>Results:</strong> The study reveals that flavones such as F1, F2, F3, F5 and F8 were potentially considered for in-vivo antidiabetic activity. Fasting blood glucose and biochemical parameters like total protein, urea and creatinine, SGOT, SALP and SGPT were performed for the biological evaluation and compared with that of standard glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Among the five consolidated flavones, F8 possess high significant <em>(p</em> &lt; 0.01) results and restores the blood glucose level, liver enzymes and renal parameters. Based on these results, a promising potent drug would be developed in the management of diabetes mellitus. <strong>Conclusion:<em>&nbsp;</em></strong><em>In-vivo</em> evaluations of selected compounds were carried out for its antidiabetic activity considering different biochemical parameters. Some of the selected flavones showed excellent and noticeable antidiabetic activity.</p> Binish Inam Adil Inam Monika Verma Kamlesh Kumar Naik Afroze Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 195 199 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.36 Ameliorative Effect of Falcaria vulgaris on Nicotine-induced Injury on the Hippocampus Dentate Gyrus Region of Rats http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/379 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The dentate gyrus (DG) is a part of a brain region known as hippocampus. <em>Falcaria vulgaris</em> (FV) is a vegetable that contains antioxidant ingredients. Nicotine is one of the main risk factors in functional disorders of various organ systems. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of FV against nicotine induced injury on the hippocampus DG region of rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, 64 male rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups: Sham group, nicotine group (0.5 mg/kg), FV groups (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) and nicotine + FV groups. Treatments were administered intraperitoneally daily for 28 days. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method was applied to determine the total antioxidant capacity. The number of dendritic spines was investigated by Golgi technique. Cresyl violet method was used to determine the number of neurons in DG region. Also, Griess technique was used to determine serum nitrite oxide level. <strong>Results:</strong> Nicotine administration increased significantly nitrite oxide level and total antioxidant capacity and a decreased number of neuronal<br>dendritic spines and neurons compared to the sham group (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). In the FV and nicotine + FV groups, in all dosages, the number of neurons and neuronal dendritic spines increased significantly while nitrite oxide level and total antioxidant capacity decreased compared to the nicotine group (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05).<strong> Conclusion:</strong> It seems that FV administration improves DG region injury in rates because of nicotine.</p> Shiva Roshankhah Amir Abdolmaleki Cyrus Jalili Mohammad Reza Salahshoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 200 204 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.37 Hypoglycemic, Antitussive and Analgesic Effects of Nanoparticles of Cordia myxa Fruits Extract http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/363 <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Cordia myxa</em> is a plant from Boraginaceae family and has many useful therapeutic properties. Aim of the study is to compare the pharmacological efficacy of <em>Cordia myxa</em> hydro-alcoholic extract (Bulk Extract [BE]) and nanoparticles of hydro-alcoholic extract (NPE) including hypoglycemic, antitussive, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. <strong>Methods:</strong> Hydro-alcoholic maceration extract of dry fruits was powdered to nanoparticle size by ball-milling technique. Hyperglycemia and cough were induced in mice by alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) and ammonia, respectively. Inflammatory and analgesic evaluations of extracts were carried out with the formalin-induced edema in the mice paw and acetic acid tests. NPE and BE were administrated at single dose (750 mg/kg, i.p.). Positive control group was received dextromethorphan (10 mg/kg, orally) in cough and indomethacin (25 mg/kg, orally) for analgesic models. Blood glucose level, the number of coughs and writhes and duration of foot lickings were calculated. <strong>Results:</strong> The blood glucose did not statistically reduce by extracts. Both extracts could significantly inhibit the frequency of cough and dramatically reduce the duration of paw licking. NPE could significantly reduce writhes. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that extracts had no hypoglycemic activity. Both extracts created therapeutic activities better than dextromethorphan. NPE exerted better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity compared to BE.</p> Shokooh Salimimoghadam Ali Ashrafi Fakhri Kianidehkordi Hossein Najafzadehvarzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 205 209 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.38 Influence of Physical Activity Body Mass Index on Perceived Physical Self-Concept among Undergraduate Students of Saudi Arabia http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/388 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Self-concept is one of the important aspect of our personality. Physical self-concept defined as person’s perception of themselves in relation to his/her physical skills and outwards appearance. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of this study was to compare and explore the association of physical activity to physical self-concept of undergraduate students at different levels of Body Mass Index (BMI). <strong>Methods:</strong> A group of 140 undergraduate students M<sub>age</sub> 19 ±0.70 years randomly categorized into underweight &lt;18.5 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [<em>n</em>= 37: 26.4%]; normal-weight 18.5-24.9 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [<em>n</em>= 31: 22.1%]; obese ≥30.00 kg/m<sup>2</sup> [<em>n</em>= 37: 26.4%] and obese class III ≥40.00 kg/ m2 [<em>n</em>= 35: 25%]. Physical self-concept measured using PSDQ-S. Physical activity on the basis of duration per week. <strong>Results:</strong> ANOVA revealed highly significant difference among BMI categories on all the factors of perceived physical self-concept except, health factor (<em>p</em> =0.589). The post hoc comparison showed that obese participants had significantly lower scores on coordination (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001), physical activity (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), sports competence (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01), appearance (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001), flexibility (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001), endurance (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001), global self-esteem (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001) and global physical self-concept (<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001). Underweight participants reported significantly lower scores on physical activity (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001), sports competence (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) and strength (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Obese category students were having poor self-concept. Normal-weight students perceived higher physical self-concept and global self-esteem than obese and underweight students. Physical activity has strong association with sports competence, strength, appearance and self-esteem. Students</p> Varghese C Antony Kaukab Azeem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 210 214 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.39 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Community Pharmacists on Medication Safety during Pregnancy: A Cross-sectional Study http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/391 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Safe medication use during pregnancy requires a great understanding of the benefits and risks associated upon use of the drug. Community Pharmacists (CPs) are the most accessible health care professionals for the pregnant women to get safety information about drugs. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of community pharmacists on medication safety during pregnancy. <strong>Methods:</strong> A crosssectional study was conducted among community pharmacists of various community pharmacies located in Anantapur district. A total of 403 CPs were enrolled and subjected for interview by using pre-validated selfadministered KAP questionnaire on medication safety during pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to represent the socio-demographic&nbsp;characteristics and KAP levels. Chi-square test was used to associate demographic profile with KAP levels. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 403 community Pharmacists (CPs) were enrolled in the study. Majority of the pharmacists are males (345; 85.6%), residing in semi-urban area (184; 45.6%), possess diploma in pharmacy (232; 57.5%) and having more than 10 years’ of experience. Among 403 CPs, only 21 (5.2%) had good knowledge, 380 (94.2%) had positive attitude and 119 (29.5%) have safe practice towards medication safety during pregnancy. Respondent’s age, qualification and experience were significantly associated with good knowledge and safe practices. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Community pharmacists are having a positive attitude and some knowledge about safe medication use in pregnant women. Still, there is a wide gap in knowledge levels and practices of CPs towards safe medication use in pregnant women. This gap can be fulfilled by providing focused educational intervention to all CPs.</p> Goruntla Narayana Payal Pandey Alluri Gullakunta Ashok Kumar Anil Kumar Bhupalam Pradeepkumar Kasturi Vishwanathasetty Veerabhadrappa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 215 219 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.40 In silico Docking Studies and Potential Lead Identification against JNK3 for Alzheimer’s Disease http://www.jpionline.org/index.php/ijpi/article/view/337 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neuron related brain disorder leading to reasoning and memory loss. There is no specific cure identified for AD. JNK3 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase /stress-activated protein kinase) are highly revealed within the central nervous system, particularly neurons, playing vital role in functioning of brain. JNK3 hyper phosphorylation is a very common conclusion in neurodegenerative diseases. JNK3 in turn hyper phosphorylates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) which leads to the formation of Amyloid β peptides (an inductive agent of Alzheimer’s disease). <strong>Methods:</strong> Protein JNK-3 (PDB ID: 3KVX) was retrieved from protein data bank and later we docked a library of compounds against it. These were further validated by ADMET studies. <strong>Results:</strong> Thus, docking inhibitors of JNK3 may provide a promising sanitive approach. Based on best docking score and glide score a potential lead is identified against JNK3. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Inhibiting JNK-3 may lead to less production of amyloidβ peptides, thus reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> Nishtha Singh Sonal Upadhyay Ankur Jaiswar Nidhi Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 9 4 220 222 10.5530/ijpi.2019.4.41