Gastroprotective Effect of Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook. and Arn. Leaves Extracts in Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats
Background: Peptic ulcer is a disease caused by imbalance between protective and aggressive factors in the gastric mucosa. Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook. and Arn. (tusca) is widely used in Argentinian’s folk medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of two A. aroma leaf extracts, 5% infusion and 10% hydroalcoholic extract in experimental models of acute gastric ulceration in rats. Methods: The gastroprotective action of the extracts was evaluated in absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in adult Westar rats through macroscopic, histological and biochemical analyses of the stomach and gastric wall. We also determined the effects on the gastric juice parameters with a pylorus ligature model in rats. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of each extract was performed in adult normal Wistar rats. All results were statistically analyzed. Results: The lowest effective dose was 150 mg/Kg for each extract. Both of them showed a high protection of the mucosa against absolute ethanol. Pre-treatments with the extracts produced a significant increase in adherent mucus. These extracts showed a free radical scavenging capacity and they caused a significant reduction of the malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione levels, catalase and myeloperoxidase activities. The animals presented no signs of acute toxicity indicating a high safety margin for both extracts. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time the gastroprotective efficacy of 5% infusion and 10% hydroalcoholic extract of A. aroma leaves, highlighting their benefits as a prophylactic approach to maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosa.