Antiurolithiasis, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, and Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Caesalpinia bonducella
Background: Urolithiasis, commonly known as nephrolithiasis, kidney stone, or renal stone, is a disorder caused by a decrease in anti-oxidant capability, damaged renal epithelium or consistently supersaturated urine, which leads to increased crystallisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate antiurolithiatic, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic property of ethanolic extract of C. bonducella seeds (EECB). Methods: For the probable molecules in EECB, GC-MS analysis was performed. Antioxidant property was investigated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Nucleation and aggregation assays were used for in vitro urolithiatic study. The diuretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity were performed in animal model. Results: GC–MS analysis of EECB identified the presence of Vitamin E, steroidal ring containing compounds and hydrocarbons. EECB was found to be effective in scavenging free radicals. EECB exhibited significant inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of EECB were found to be significant effective at dose of 400 mg/kg. Further, EECB exhibited a significant increase in urinary output and electrolytes Na+, Cl- excretion at dose of 400 mg/kg. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggested that EECB possess significant pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, and antiurolithiatic activities. Antioxidants property of EECB could be used in preventing oxidative stress; the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties could be used in the prevention of inflammation and pain of damaged epithelial cells of nephrons, which are caused by intra-papillary calcifications; the diuretic activity could be used in reducing supersaturation of calcium oxalate.