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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2017
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 111-154

Online since Tuesday, October 17, 2017

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Gingivitis and plaque prevention using three commercially available dentifrices: A comparative clinical and microbiological randomized control parallel study p. 111
Ramprasad Reddy, Rajababu Palaparthy, Satyanarayana Durvasula, Pradeep Koppolu, Essam Elkhatat, Khaled Ali Rajab Assiri, Al Sulaiman Abdulrahman Saad A
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_41_17  
Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy of Group I-delmopinol dentifrice, Group II-chlorhexidine, and Group III-triclosan-containing regularly used control dentifrice on plaque formation and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 healthy volunteer students fulfilling the inclusion criteria are recruited for this randomized control parallel study. All the individuals were randomly assigned into 3 groups depending on the dentifrice prescribed. After the selection of individuals, thorough scaling and polishing were performed for all the individuals, and in a 4 days' washout period, they were refrained from regular oral hygiene maintenance and 0.9% NaCl (normal saline) rinse was prescribed to obtain plaque regrowth. Microbiological morphotypes were assessed using darkfield microscope. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using the SPSS-software 19.00 program. The intragroup comparison of clinical parameters was done using Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA test, and intergroup comparison was done by Mann–Whitney U-test. The intragroup comparison of clinical parameters including modified staining index, the supragingival microbiota such as cocci, bacilli, and spirochetes scores was done at various study intervals using one-way ANOVA, and intergroup comparison was done using Tukey's multiple post hoc test. Results: The results showed that statistically significant correlation between Group II and Group III at 15 and 30 days and between Group I and Group II at 30 days with cocci and bacilli but not spirochetes. Conclusion: Group II showed better plaque and gingivitis reduction compared to other active groups. To validate the results of the present study, further long-term studies with larger sample size and evaluation using known and proven study designs on gingivitis patients are needed.
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A prospective randomized controlled study: Theophylline on oxidative stress and steroid sensitivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients p. 119
R Ranjani, AT Sathiya Vinotha
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_58_17  
Objective: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Corticosteroid fails to suppress inflammation and oxidative stress due to steroid resistance. Theophylline has an effect on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and improves steroid sensitivity in COPD. Given changes in oxidative stress associated with diminished corticosteroid effects, a clinical study in which antioxidants and free radicals are estimated can suggest a correlation between antioxidants, theophylline, and corticosteroid sensitivity. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted in 60 participants divided into 4 groups: Group I (controls) - 15 normal healthy volunteers, Group II - COPD patients who received theophylline 300 mg + salbutamol 8 mg, Group III - patients who inhaled budesonide 400 μg + salbutamol 8 mg, and Group IV - theophylline 300 mg + inhaled budesonide 400 μg + salbutamol 8 mg 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis and at 4-week interval for 3 months from all the groups and antioxidant parameters, spirometric % forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured. Results: The mean difference between groups was analyzed using one-way ANOVA. There was a significant increase in antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione (GSH) serum transferase, (P < 0.05), reduced GSH, and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01) at 12 weeks of the study period. Postbronchodilator FEV1values have also shown a significant increase at 12 weeks (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Theophylline increases the expression and activity of HDAC and improves steroid sensitivity thereby decreases oxidative stress. Hence, novel therapeutic strategy is therefore the reversal of this corticosteroid resistance by increasing the expression and activity of HDAC achieved using corticosteroids along with theophylline.
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Smartphone usage and increased risk of mobile phone addiction: A concurrent study p. 125
Subramani Parasuraman, Aaseer Thamby Sam, Stephanie Wong Kah Yee, Bobby Lau Chik Chuon, Lee Yu Ren
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_56_17  
Objective: This study aimed to study the mobile phone addiction behavior and awareness on electromagnetic radiation (EMR) among a sample of Malaysian population. Methods: This online study was conducted between December 2015 and 2016. The study instrument comprised eight segments, namely, informed consent form, demographic details, habituation, mobile phone fact and EMR details, mobile phone awareness education, psychomotor (anxious behavior) analysis, and health issues. Frequency of the data was calculated and summarized in the results. Results: Totally, 409 respondents participated in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 22.88 (standard error = 0.24) years. Most of the study participants developed dependency with smartphone usage and had awareness (level 6) on EMR. No significant changes were found on mobile phone addiction behavior between the participants having accommodation on home and hostel. Conclusion: The study participants were aware about mobile phone/radiation hazards and many of them were extremely dependent on smartphones. One-fourth of the study population were found having feeling of wrist and hand pain because of smartphone use which may lead to further physiological and physiological complication.
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A comparative evaluation of diclofenac sodium transdermal patch, oral diclofenac sodium with intramuscular injections of diclofenac sodium in patients suffering from oral pain: A randomized control trial p. 132
Nallan C S K Chaitanya, P Karunakar, Komali Garlapati, Mounika Yeladandi, Pallavi Bidari, Pratima Soni
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_52_17  
Background: Newer drug delivery systems such as transdermal patches using pain relieving or modifying agents emerged as a mainstream treatment protocol for management of pain on the outpatient basis. The administration of diclofenac 100 mg in the transdermal patch in the patients having dental pain due to periapical/periodontal infections was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients of either gender, between 18 and 80 years were divided into 3 groups (Group A - oral medication, Group B - transdermal patch, Group C - intramuscular group). Patients at the Dental Department with pain from periapical/periodontal pathologies were explained about the procedure of analgesia. With written consent, 100 mg diclofenac sodium transdermal patches were prescribed to patients who opted their use in pain control for 2 consecutive days. A visual analog scale was provided for all patients assessing the pain intensity during the study. Results: Significant difference in the mean percentage reduction in visual analog scale (VAS) score among the three groups at day 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Post hoc test showed that intramuscular (IM) and oral groups had significantly higher mean VAS score than patch group. Conclusion: Diclofenac administered through oral and IM routes showed significant improvement in pain relief when compared to the transdermal route. However, diclofenac transdermal patches have shown significant improvement in VAS score between the baseline and consecutive days and can be used in mild pain with lower adverse events.
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Isolation and identification of probiotic Lactobacillus from local dairy and evaluating their antagonistic effect on pathogens p. 137
Sahar Karami, Mohammad Roayaei, Hosna Hamzavi, Mahmoud Bahmani, Hassan Hassanzad-Azar, Mahmoodnia Leila, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_8_17  
Objective: Probiotics such as lactobacilli prevent the development of a wide range of human and animal's pathogens. The aim of this study was evaluation of antagonistic effect of isolated lactobacilli from local dairy products against three standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: Twenty samples of local dairy products including cow milk, buffalo milk, cheese, and yogurt were collected from different areas of Ahwaz city. Antimicrobial disc diffusion method was applied on S. aureus (ATCC-6538), B. subtilis (ATCC-12711), and P. aeruginosa (ATCC-27853). Antimicrobial effects of isolates were evaluated by disc diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar medium plated with three pathogens. Results: Obtained results showed that only three strains of isolated lactobacilli of local dairy samples had inhibitory effects on understudy pathogens including Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus sake, and Lactobacillus collinoides. All three isolates showed moderate activity (inhibition zone <15 mm) except of L. collinoides and L. alimentarius that had relatively strong activity (inhibition zone ≥15 mm) against P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis, respectively. Conclusion: These bacteria can be raised for the production of various kinds of food, pharmaceutical products, and functional foods.
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Development of a binary carrier system consisting polyethylene glycol 4000 - ethyl cellulose for ibuprofen solid dispersion p. 142
Gada Sulaiman A Alagdar, May Kyaw Oo, Pinaki Sengupta, Uttam Kumar Mandal, Julian Md Jaffri, Bappaditya Chatterjee
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_54_17  
Background and Objective: One of the established strategies to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs is solid dispersion (SD). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used as common carrier despite its stability problem which may be overcome by the addition of hydrophobic polymer. The present research aimed to develop an SD formulation with ibuprofen, a poor water-soluble BCS Class II drug as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and PEG 4000-ethyl cellulose (EC) as binary carrier. Methods: Melt mixing SD method was employed using a ratio of API: binary carrier (1:3.5 w/w) (SDPE). Another SD was prepared using only PEG (SDP) as a carrier for comparative study. The developed formulation was evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), determination of moisture content, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro dissolution test, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and flow properties. Results: SEM and DSC indicated the conversion of crystalline ibuprofen to fine partly amorphous solid dispersion, which was responsible for the increase in dissolution rate of SD than a physical mixture. The release characteristics within 1 h from the higher to the lower value were the SDPE> SDP> physical mixture. Flow property evaluation using the angle of repose showed no difference between SD and PM. However, by Carr index and Hausner ratio, the flow properties of SDPEwas excellent. Conclusion: The SD formulation with the PEG 4000-EC carrier can be effective to enhance in vitro dissolution of ibuprofen immediate release dosage form.
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Radioprotective effect of hesperidin on reducing oxidative stress in the lens tissue of rats p. 149
Navid Karimi, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Gholam Hassan Haddadi, Abbas Soleymani, Erfan Mohammadi, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Sajad Borzoueisileh
DOI:10.4103/jphi.JPHI_60_17  
Introduction: Oxidative stress is a common factor in cataract. Considering the antioxidant properties of hesperidin as a flavanone glycoside from the flavonoid family with radioprotective effect, this study aimed to determine the protective effect of this flavanone glycoside on reducing oxidative stress in the eye lens tissue of mature rats caused by gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely, control, Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), hesperidin, radiation, radiation + DMSO, and radiation + hesperidin. 15 Gy irradiation was carried out using Cobalt-60 teletherapy instrument with a source-to-surface distance of 80 cm at a dose rate of 98.5 cGy/min. 2 days following irradiation, we removed the rats' lenses and analyzed them to determine the effects of hesperidin. Results: The comparison of control and intervention groups after irradiation showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the lens tissue was significantly higher in the irradiation groups than the control group. Furthermore, a significant difference between radiation and radiation + hesperidin groups were observed. The level of glutathione (GSH) in the lens tissue was significantly lower in the irradiation groups compared to the control group. Nonetheless, significant elevation of GSH in the radiation + hesperidin group compared to radiation group was seen. Conclusions: Radiation exposure reduced GSH and enhanced MDA levels in the lens tissue. However, GSH and MDA levels were modulated after hesperidin consumption. These results show the antioxidative properties of hesperidin in the lens and demonstrated that radiation complications such as cataract can be reduced by hesperidin through reducing oxidative stress.
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